BIO 223 - General Microbiology
4 credit hours - Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory weekly; one term.
This course meets the Biological and Physical Sciences General Education Requirement.
Study of the fundamental principles of microbiology, the diversity of microorganisms and the relation of microorganisms to disease and industry. Laboratory work includes the examination of media, culture methods, microscope examinations and identifications, the control of microorganisms by physical and chemical means and some quantitative techniques. Lab fee $50.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 101 or BIO 103 or BIO 231 or BIO 233 ; eligibility for ENG 111 or ENG 115 or ENG 121 and any general education math.
Crosslisted: Also offered as BIO 223H ; credit is not given for both BIO 223 and BIO 223H .
Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to:
· Describe the contributions of microbiologists to the field.
- Describe how modern microbiology has changed world views on causes and treatment of disease, epidemiology and disease transmission, food and drinking water safety, environmental and industrial microbial processes, ecosystems and understanding of the human microbiome.
- Discover how the study and development of microbiological processes has helped shape human history.
- Explain how cell theory and germ theory have influenced the field of biology.
- Examine the development of microbiology from the simple study of microorganisms to the many related disciplines that have evolved today.
· Compare phylogenetic relationships.
- Identify selected microorganisms.
- Classify selected microorganisms.
- Compare prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
- Describe the characteristics of viruses and prions.
· Describe microbial cell structure and explain key metabolic pathways and genetics.
- Diagram a typical eukaryotic cell and explain the function of the organelles.
- Diagram a typical prokaryotic cell and explain the function of each component part.
- Compare and contrast Gram positive and Gram negative cell walls.
- Distinguish the major modes of energy transformation (metabolism).
- Explain the primary mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer in bacteria.
- Describe the mechanisms and effects of mutation in bacteria and viruses.
- Contrast modes of genetic recombination in bacteria.
· Analyze patterns of microbial growth and how environmental factors affect growth rates.
- Diagram a typical bacterial growth curve.
- Describe the metabolic activity of the phases of the bacterial growth curve.
- Describe the effects of nutrient and oxygen supply on bacterial growth.
- Determine bacterial generation time from a growth curve.
- Graph the temperature effects on growth indicating the cardinal temperatures.
- Describe biofilms and necessary components of biofilms.
· Apply the principles of physical and chemical control of microbial growth to prevention of food spoilage and disease transmission.
- List the methods for physical and chemical control of microbial growth.
- Distinguish between sterilization, disinfection, antisepsis, degerming and sanitization.
- Rank the sensitivity of microorganisms to various chemical and physical control agents.
· Describe the primary virulence factors encountered in the microbial world.
- Describe mechanisms of pathogenicity/virulence factors for viruses and bacteria.
- Categorize the pathogenic effects of bacteria as to cytopathic, neuropathic or enteropathic.
- Describe the steps involved for a microorganism to cause disease.
· Characterize the human immune response to microorganisms.
- Describe the stages in disease development.
- Describe the components of the non-specific human immune system.
- Outline the differences between the humoral and cell-mediated immune system.
- Explain the process of B-cell and T-cell activation.
- Diagram the interaction of the humoral and cell-mediated immune system.
- Diagram the structures of the five categories of antibody.
- Describe the various activities of antibody (neutralization, agglutination, opsonization, etc.)
- Describe immunological tests for antigen and antibody.
· Describe the antimicrobial mechanisms of key antibiotics.
- Distinguish between the five mechanisms/sites of antimicrobial action.
- Perform an antibiotic sensitivity test.
- Distinguish between minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bacteriocidal concentration.
- Discuss antibiotic resistance and the behaviors of humans and microbes that lead to the spread of resistance.
- Discuss the global significance of increasing antibiotic resistance.
· Compare the three modes of epidemiology.
- Describe analytical epidemiology.
- Describe experimental epidemiology.
- Describe descriptive epidemiology.
- Contrast modes of disease transmission.
· Interpret both qualitative and quantitative data related to microbial processes.
- Summarize scientific literature, including current new articles relating to microbiological concepts.
- Interpret staining and other morphological characteristics to identify an unknown bacterium.
- Graph absorbance versus temperature to determine the cardinal temperatures for selected bacteria.
- Interpret physiological and other diagnostic tests to identify an unknown bacterium.
- Interpret bacterial growth on selective and differential media.
- Utilize standard techniques to enumerate bacteria.
- Interpret results from a Kirby-Bauer antibiotic sensitivity test.
- Graph absorbance over time to determine the growth rates of selected bacteria.
· Demonstrate basic microbiology laboratory skills.
- Demonstrate technical competence using the compound light microscope in observing microorganisms.
- Demonstrate technical competence in working safely in a microbiology laboratory.
- Demonstrate technical competence in slide preparation and various staining techniques.
- Demonstrate technical competence in handling and growing bacterial cultures.
· Apply appropriate microbiology concepts to laboratory experiments.
- Analyze staining and other morphological characteristics to identify an unknown bacterium.
- Analyze physiological and other diagnostic tests to identify an unknown bacterium.
- Identify an unknown bacterium based on morphological characteristics.
- Identify an unknown bacterium based on both morphological and physiological characteristics.
- Demonstrate ability to use scientific literature in the identification of bacteria.
Core 2 Technology Fluency Core 5 Self Management Core 6 Scientific Reasoning Core 7 Quantitative Reasoning Core 9 Global Perspective Core 10 Innovative and Critical Thinking